Hello to those joining us from around the US and the globe. It is two PM in the Eastern time zone of the United States, but whatever time it is for you locally, we welcome you, and thank you for joining us. My name is Rob Kelly, and I will be the webinar monitor today.
Today's session, 21st century airport planning, design, and development, part one, with Dr. Katherine Moran and Dr. Patti Clark is part of a series of free webinars we are presenting during the 2015-16 academic year. Each features noted Embry-Riddle faculty or alumni, or national experts talking about an important topic of interest in their field.
Here is today's agenda. We have a bit of housekeeping, then our featured presentation, followed by a question and answer period, and finally, additional information about professional education programs offered by the university.
[00:01:00] I want to begin the webinar by finding out a bit more about our audience. Please take a moment to tell us where you are today as you listen in to this session.
Okay, we have the results coming in on our poll. We have attendees from all over the world. North America, eight percent from Europe, five percent from the Middle East, 1.8% from Africa, and two percent from South America, so welcome everyone from all over the world.
[00:02:00] Before we begin, I wanted to cover a few housekeeping items. If you have any questions during the webcast, you can place them in the Q&A section, and submit your question for the presenter. You can submit questions at any time and we will try to answer as many of those as possible at the end of the webcast. Slides are available for download at any time during the presentation.
A follow up e-mail will be sent to all participants and posted to the webinars website, with the on-demand link to the recording, as well as other helpful information. A participation certificate will not be available for this session, or part 2. At the very end of the webinar, we will ask you to complete a very brief survey before you log out. Your input is appreciated and carefully reviewed. In fact, the webinar presented today grew out of requests we had for this topic.
[00:03:00] With the housekeeping out of the way, we have just a brief poll to find out who is joining us today. Please answer, What is your relationship to ERAU? with the answer that best describes you.
Okay we have an even split among some of the categories. A lot of attendees today are just interested in the topic, several of our current students, alumni, some who are considered pursuing a degree, and a good amount of our staff or faculty, so thank you again for joining us today.
[00:04:00] Our first presenter today is Dr. Katherine, or Kat, Moran. Dr. Moran is an associate professor and program chair for the Master of Science and Occupational Safety and Management at Embry-Riddle worldwide. She received her Doctor of Education in Quantitative Research from the University of Southern California, and is working towards a PhD in Biomechanical Engineering from the University of Portsmouth in the UK. She was a co-developer of the virtual aircraft crash lab which is now used in several Embry-Riddle worldwide courses. She served in the US Air Force and Air National Guard for twenty years in the fields of F-15 avionics, aviation safety, occupational safety and health, and aircraft accident investigation.
Dr. Moran will speak on airport safety and security. Welcome Dr. Moran.
Thank you so much for that introduction, Rob. As Rob said, I will be talking about airport safety and certification and this is obviously a very important topic in relation to airport planning, design, and development.
[00:05:00] What I'll cover in this presentation is airport safety and certification requirements, airport emergency plans, airport rescue firefighting, runaway safety, airport hazards such as winter operations and wildlife hazards, and safety management systems.
[00:06:00] Because we have rules and regulations in every country that apply to the United States, we look at the International Civil Aviation Organization with specifically Annex 14, which sets out the fundamental standards and recommended practices for airport design and operations, especially as it pertains to safety. As the United States is a member state under IKO, for this briefing I will use the standards, procedures, and best practices of the Federal Aviation Administration in certificating and ensuring safe airport operations at US airports.
[00:07:00] The FAA is the United States' federal regulatory body for aviation. Looking at a quick snapshot of airports in the US, they can be owned and operated by different agencies, by local governments, state governments, port authorities, airport authorities, and even private entities. On the right, you'll see a quick snapshot of Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport located in Georgia. This is one of our busiest, highest arrival and departure airports in the United States. Just to give you an idea of the type of traffic that we're looking at, you can see the difference between the years 2014 and 2015, which regards to passenger arrival and departure figures, scheduled flights, the amount of tonnage that's carried with regard to cargo, also referred to as freight or mail, and the number of scheduled carriers.
To have a good understanding of the types of operations and the growth that we're seeing in air transportation today, which speaks very much to why we need to have safety and certification in our airports. You see just between the two years, we're seeing a six percent growth in arrival, passenger arrivals, 6.2% growth in passenger departures, and almost two percent growth in scheduled departures, scheduled flight departures, and even our cargo, freight, and mail we're seeing an increase of almost four percent there.
[00:08:00] Airport certification. The reason we look at airport certification. The International Civil Aviation Organization Annex 14 has set out that nations under IKO have standards in place for the safety of airport operations. The Federation Aviation Administration has the authority to issue requirements for the certification and operations of specific airports based on size and operations.
Under the Part 1 39 of Title 14, the full title is the Code of Federal Regulations, 14 CFR Part 139, and that applies to airports in the United States. Specifications of that are if the airport is serving scheduled and unscheduled air carrier aircraft with more than thirty seats, serving scheduled air carrier service operations and aircraft with nine or more seats but less than 31, and as the FAA administrator deems is necessary to be certificated.
[00:09:00] We break our airports down into four categories based on the parameters that I just discussed, and overall, the primary mission of the Federal Aviation Administration is to ensure that the national airport system in the US is operating safely, efficiently, and with environmental responsibility, while meeting the needs of the traveling public.
[00:10:00] To do that, we have the Airport Certification Manual. This manual is pretty much the bible of operating certificated airports. It lays out all of the operating procedures, the required equipment, the personnel and personnel responsibilities, and any other information that's pertinent to the safety of airport operations. The manual has to be kept current at all times. It's a very comprehensive document, detailing all the information, who does what, when, where, and how each task is performed, but the document itself has to be flexible enough that if any unforeseen circumstances come up, that the airport is able to amend this or use the certification manual to meet those requirements, and this could be anything like a natural disaster, a hurricane, or an earthquake, or even an aircraft accident.
The airport certification manual is the document itself that lays out how the airport is going to stay in compliance with certification. It falls under the regulation of Part 139 is we just spoke about, but the Federal Aviation Administration also allows for advisory circulars. Advisory circulars are not mandatory information. They are guidance to assist airports in staying in compliance with Part 139. As you see, I've listed several here, several of the advisory circulars that give airports guidance.
[00:11:00] For example, on what must be in their airport emergency plan, what they must do with regard to winter safety operations and wildlife management, standards for airport markings in signing and lightage. All of that is available in advisory circulars again to assist airports in staying in compliance with the regulation.
We just mentioned the airport emergency plan. The airport emergency plan is probably one of the most important aspects of the airport certification manual in airport operations itself. It addresses all essential emergency plans to ensure the safety of the airport itself but also the mere environment in which the airport operates. This could entail anything having to do with an aircraft accident on or near the runway to a natural disaster such as an earthquake or a hurricane, or technological disasters. By technological disasters, we mean those that are man-made. Typically, what would fall into that category is something like sabotage or terrorism, as we just saw in Brussels.
[00:12:00] The main parameters of the airport emergency plan are command and control, communications, alerts and notifications, protective actions, those actions that fall under the parameters of security and law enforcement, firefighting, rescue, medical, resource management, mutual aid, that would be those agencies that would come in to assist the airport, possibly communities, community hospitals, that type of thing, and public information.
One of the most important aspects of the airport emergency plan is airport rescue firefighting, frequently referred to as ARFF. You may also see it as Crash Rescue Management, different acronyms, but essentially as most airport planning documents or the airport certification manual refer to it as airport rescue firefighting, we'll use the term ARFF.
[00:13:00] Basically, any airports that are operating under Part 139 are responsbiel to provide ARFF services during any air carrier operations that fall under Part 139 certification. There are requirements for each airport. Because airports vary in size, operations, that type of thing, we base the requirements for the airport rescue firefighting on the length of the largest aircraft that uses that airport and the average number of daily departures of the largest aircraft.
[00:14:00] For example, at our larger airports, such as Atlanta, that would be in Index E. That means that they have aircraft that are at least 200 feet in length, with a minimum of five or more average daily departures of that type of aircraft. The reason that we use these indexes is because that makes the determination of the type of equipment, the number of equipment, meaning the number of airport rescue firefighting trucks that we use, and you see an example there in the picture, the type of extinguishing agents that we use, such as aqueous film forming foam, and the actual operational requirements, the number of people that must be on staff, the type of training that they receive. That all varies based on the size of the airport.
Airport hazards. Just a little bit about this. Basically, air transportation is one of the most vital industries that we have. It's important to economics, politics, and social importance, yet there is a lot of hazards that are inherent to the operation itself, and not just to the operation but to the location of some of our airports.
[00:15:00] For example, some of the hazards that airports must plan for are aircraft accidents, runway incursions, natural disasters, tornadoes, hurricanes, tsunamis, winter storms, wildlife hazards, those type of things, as well as technological or man-made disasters. Under technological disasters we list terrorism, passenger rage, structural fires, smuggling, those types of events. These are the events that are covered with respect to airport hazards.
[00:16:00] A little bit about winter operations. Each airport has to assess the potential hazards to determine what the probability and severity of a risk is for their airport. A lot of airports here in the United States during the winter months obviously have a risk factor for winter storms, snow and ice build up, that type of thing. Under Part 139 and specifically section 313, we cover snow and ice control. It basically requires that certificated airports have a plan to conduct runway friction surveys to ensure the safe operation during landing and takeoffs, and to establish snow and ice control removal plans. Although we have a regulation for that, we also have an advisory circular which I've listed there to demonstrate or to help airports stay in compliance with regulation 139.313.
[00:17:00] Wildlife management is another very large hazard that we see at a lot of airports not just in the United States but all over the world. A prime example, I actually lived in Alaska at the time that this occurred, and was very nearby when this crash occurred. It was on September 23, 1995, Anchorage, Alaska, a flock of Canadian geese flew right into the path of a United States Air Force AWACS aircraft that was taking off. It happened right after takeoff and the aircraft actually crashed on the field. A picture of the aircraft is in the lower right hand corner. This resulted in the death of 24 crewmen. Basically, this tragic event illustrates the reason that 14 CFR Part 139.337, and it's the .337 that deals specifically with wildlife management, but that's why we mandate that airports must assess the risk in the magnitude of the wildlife strike problem for their particular airport. This must be done for each specific airport.
The assessment itself has to be comprehensive and it has to look at all aspects to include wildlife habitat itself.
[00:18:00] Runway safety is another aspect that we look at. We look at both runway excursions and runway incursions. An excursion is where an aircraft may run off the runway. A runway incursion involves the occurrence where an aircraft is involved in the incorrect presence or the airport has the incorrect presence of an aircraft, a vehicle, or a person on a protected area.
This is just a little bit more detail about runway incursions. We have different categories of runway incursions, going from a Category D, where there was an aircraft or a vehicle or a person on the wrong place on, say, a runway, but there was no immediate threat or safety consequence, and that goes up to a Category A, which is the highest priority, the most dangerous. That's where a serious incident or a collision was just very narrowly avoided and obviously the next highest priority after that would be considered an airport.
[00:19:00] We look at runway incursions with respect to operational incidents, pilot deviations, and vehicle-pedestrian deviations. An operational incident would be where there was an action or an omission from air traffic control which resulted in an incursion or a pilot deviation, where the pilot violated a federal aviation regulation, or vehicle-pedestrian deviation of some sort that led to the potential for a runway incursion.
Safety management systems is another very important aspect of airports. The International Civil Aviation Organization amended Annex 14 Volume to require member states to have certificated airports establish some form of a safety management system and we refer to this generally as SMS. Basically, the proposed rule making for SMS is going to require that all certificate holders establish some form of a plan to improve the safety of air carrier operations on movement and non-movement areas. The intent is to detect and correct problems at the airport level before they manifest into an incident or an accident.
[00:20:00] In the United States, the FAA is currently working on implementation of a rule. Of course, there is the problem that we have so many different sized, operational aspects of our different airports. Right now, the advisory ... We have an advisory circular in place to support the SMS measures at airports and all airports are encouraged to share information on lessons learned on safety reporting, tracking, data collection, risk management, safety assurance, and safety promotion. This is still in the works for the United States with the Federal Aviation Administration.
[00:30:00] If you have any questions [inaudible 00:43:51].
[00:01:00] Hello to those joining us from around the US and the globe. It is two pm in the eastern time zone of the United States. Whatever time it is for you locally we welcome you and thank you for joining us. We particularly welcome those of you who participated last week in part I and we are happy to have you back for part II. My name is Rob Kelly and I will be the webinar moderator again this week. Today's session: 21st Airport Planning, Design, and Development Part II, with assistant professor Shawn Arena and Dr. Daniel Benny. As part of a series of free webinars we are presenting during the 2015-2016 academic year. Each features noted Embry-Riddle faculty or alumni or national experts talking about an important topic of interest in their field.
Here is today's agenda: We have a bit of housekeeping. Then Shawn Arena's presentation with a brief question and answer period. Next, Daniel Benny will speak. We will then answer questions from his presentation. As we have time, we will have a general Q&A to pick up any questions we missed earlier. We will cover information about professional education programs offered by the university. Then, finally, wrap it up with a survey. They entire session will last just less than sixty minutes.
[00:02:00] First we will start with a poll. I want to begin the webinar by finding out a bit more about our audience and your role in airport planning. Please take a moment to tell me more about you. It seems we have a good amount of responses coming in. About fourteen percent of you are in airport management, about nineteen percent in education, seventeen percent as consultants, a little less than seven percent in engineering or construction, eight percent operational staff. We have a large percentage who are just interested in the topic, which is great. Welcome to all of you.
[00:03:00] Before we begin I would like to cover just a few housekeeping items. If you have questions during the presentations, you can place them in the Q&A section and submit your question for the presenter. You can submit questions at any time and we will try to answer as many of those as possible at the end of each presenters section. Be sure to preface the question with the speakers name, Arena or Benny, so we know who should answer it. Use the help chat if you have technical questions. Slides are available for download at any time during the presentation. A follow up email will be send to all participants and posted to the webinars website with the on demand link to the recording as well as other helpful information. Participation certificate will not be available for this session or last week's session.
[00:04:00] At the very end of the webinar we will ask you to complete a brief survey before you log out. Your input is appreciated and carefully reviewed. With the housekeeping out of the way, we have just another brief poll. Please answer where do you see the greatest need for training at airports. I appreciate everybody answering. It looks like we have about twenty seven percent in risk management, twenty five percent in operations, little less than twenty percent in safety, slightly less than twenty five percent in security, and about four percent in other categories. Thank you everybody for participating in that.
[00:05:00] Our first presenter today is assistant professor Shawn Arena. Professor Arena, double AE, is a twenty seven year airport industry professional. He has held management positions at four commercial service airports and four general aviation airports. He is an accredited airport executive and active member of local, regional, and national professional airport boards. He holds degrees from Embry-Riddle and the University of Southern California. Assistant professor Arena will speak on airport planning and design. Welcome Shawn.
[00:06:00] Thank you Rob. Good morning, good afternoon, or good evening. Depending on where everybody is. As Rob Kelly stated, my name is Shawn Arena and I'll be spending a few minutes describing to you the first of four classes that we have in the certification program regarding airport planning and design that the office of professional education has put together. This presentation will be providing an overview of the topics that we'll be covering during the six weeks that the class is conducted. That includes present and future trends in airport planning and design. Dynamic strategic planning, specifically the swat analysis. Land side terminal design, ground access, baggage systems, airport capacity and delay, the associated demand management, and your traffic management impacts, and finally the airport layout design and environmental concerns.
[00:08:00] Those of you that had listened in to the webinar last week you heard Dr. Merran mention the federal aviation administrating governing all airport operations management and safety. Similar in the airport planning and design aspect, the FAA also regulates airport planning and design by the advisory circular 150/5300-13 addressing airport planning and design. That is the primary guidance all airports are to use in the United States regardless of size and scope. Currently, some of you have probably notices there are a few trends out there that airports are adjusting to to meet the 21st century demands. First, are mobile apps. Many of you who have traveled domestically as well as internationally are seeing that airports are listening to their customers and the apps that they are allowing available gives information regarding gate use, flight numbers, concessions, and is on this mobile world that we're living in becoming very handy.
[00:09:00] The automated passport control aspect is also very important for those that travel internationally. The Department of Homeland Security and Transportation Security Administration are working with airports to automate that aspect as well. For future and some ongoing present considerations, I've noted four topics that you're going to be hearing or have hear about already. The aerotropolis concept is actually something that was originally noted back in the 1930's, but it was re-purposed as recently as 2000 by Dr. John Casordis, who is a transportation and commerce expert. His concept of aerotropolis basically means that the airport is and will become a city where everything else around it is dependent. Intermodal transportation in commerce revolves around the airport. Here is the United States, Atlanta is one of the first airports to do that and we're beginning to see that. You will see that throughout the years. That term will come in handy.
[00:10:00] UAV and UAS impacts are beginning to make huge influences about airport design and planning. The UAV operators are stemming from small private operators to larger commercial operators. The Federal Aviation Administration and airport operators are trying to deal with how to confine them to certain areas, do not interfere above certain air space, but it's going to be an aspect that is going to be addressed in the future. The funding aspect is always an issue. AIP is actually Airport Improvement Program funding which is basically a big pie that all monies are collected and distributed to airports. That's how airports basically get a lot of their funding. The passenger facility charge is a volunteer program that individual airports use to the fact of lack of federal monies. They're able to use PFC monies to do any infrastructure improvement. Finally, the current pilot shortages that are seen actually in the United States as well as world wide is impacting how airport planning and design is being utilized and flexible in the world that we're living now. Those are the things that you're going to be seeing and have been seeing in the present and in the near future.
[00:11:00] From a planning and strategic planning standpoint, historically airport planners have relied on airport master plans. I noted there is several consultants on board with us today for this webinar. More than likely you may have been involved in the master planning process. The new philosophy that is being adopted is the dynamic strategic planning. That involves the SWOT analysis. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. They've taken the master plan process and kind of looked into a bigger picture to make it very proactive instead of reactive. Of the four airport master plans I've worked on, it is important and very vital for the consultant as well as the airport administration to realize a plan, be it dynamic or airport master plan must be demand driven, not necessarily time driven. You don't want to over build or under build. You want to go according to what is current at the time.
[00:12:00] Multi airport systems, in many areas of the United States there are several primary airports surrounded by secondary airports that serve commercial traffic. I've listed four on the slide here that they have regional consolidation, if you want to call if that. Each of those areas ... San Francisco may have Oakland, Los Angeles may have four other commercial airports, Houston has Hobby and George Bush, and of course the New York area has Newark, Kennedy, and JFK. All of that has to be taken into consideration from planning to make sure that everything in that area as well as nationwide is officially run as safely as possible to spread things out and not over tax one area.
[00:13:00] When we talk about terminal design there are five areas that we really look at and I've given you some examples on the right. Finger pier, satellites, midfield, linear, and transporter. Those are all the configurations that have come into play with planning in the United States and it's evolved over time. It used to be that you had a single terminal that was very linear. That has outgrown and the planning and design aspect has to adjust to that. Those five come into play. How the ground access and intermodal transportation comes into play is more cognitant for airport planners and designers today because of the multi transportation look on how airports are accessing and people access the airports from in town and out of town.
Finally, the baggage handling system has also been impacted with aircraft as large as the A380, for example, that carry more bags. You have aircraft going farther distance, therefore you have more bags. Airports are looking at radio frequency identification systems as well as the in line system that do a lot of "behind the scenes", but really came to prominence after 9/11/2001 because of the security concerns and the wants of minimizing the amount of time and human impact that baggage has for security. Dr. Benny will be going into the security aspects from that point during his presentation.
[00:14:00] There are several factors that we talk about regarding air field capacity and delay. I will not read them to you. You can see right there on the screen. It's very important that planners and airport administrators realize that all these factors come into play and you may not be able to necessarily change them, but at the same time you may be able to mitigate them. One of the big things are, for example, the number and geometric layout of runways and the mix of aircraft movements. When you're dealing with the geometric layout of runways, you're pretty much determined that you're having parallel, you're having intersection, you're having different types of runway layouts. The FAA requires a separation distance, for example, between parallel runways that become a challenge for planners. When you're mixing small aircraft and large aircraft, that makes it a challenge because you have FAA safety standard that you have to deal with. All those other aspects come into play and are very important from the planning and design aspect to where some things you have under your control, other things you don't.
[00:16:00] When you talk about demand management, which is the flip side of the capacity, you're looking at basically three aspects regarding demand management and the associated air traffic management impact. You have administrative, economic, and hybrid. From administrative point of view you're looking at slot control. An aircraft at a gate is "using a slot". In the United States we have the four airports designated there as part of the high density rules to decrease the amount of congestion at Reagan National, Laguardia, Kennedy, and Newark. As recent as 2000 and 2001, the FAA required an airline competition plan for large hub airports to minimize the congestion caused by the legacy or the larger airlines that may be dominant at certain airports. In the United States you may see several airports that are dominated by one airline. They want to spread that out. They want to allow new entrance to come in. Especially now when we have very few large hub or legacy airline slot.
Economically speaking, there's congestion pricing. That is very controversial and airports have to be very careful about that because you may cause a discrimination aspect between general aviation and air carrier. Finally, you have a hybrid, or a combination of slots plus congestion or slot auctions along the way. Those are the different policies that can be put into play from an airport perspective to minimize any aspect that would cause problems from congestion and demand. There's always more demand than supply in a lot of things besides aviation. This is aviation's planning method of how to decrease and keep the capacity of the high peak as possible.
[00:18:00] We are now in an era within the last five to ten years that we're hearing the word, and you may have been part of it, NextGen, next generation air traffic control management. There are benefits and draw backs as you can see from the bullet items I've listed there. We've spoken briefly about the lateral separation. Primarily what the FAA is looking to do is change the whole air traffic management system from the ground base system to satellite based system. That does allow, for example, curved approaches and departures. It possibly increases your design peak hour. It gives flexibility as well. Airport managers and planners, however, are sometimes caught in the middle or caught off guard on that because some of those aspects do impact in a negative way. For example, the second bullet item, curved approaches and departures. Within the last year a metroplex role out by the FAA regarding curved approached and departures. Metroplex basically means those large regional areas that have many airports around them. The FAA went ahead and fanned out arrivals and departures to the contrary of disbelief and pleasure of the people around them because they did not get used to or had the impact of aircraft before.
[00:19:00] Politically and socially, that's creating an issue. The best overall solution, as most of us probably know, is to build additional runways and airports. Unfortunately, and many may not be aware of this, is the fact that between 1974 and 2016, as we speak today, there only have been two brand new airports built in this country. Dallas Fort Worth in 1974 and Denver in 1995. A lot of airports have been trying to restructure or revamp themselves, but because of the regulatory requirements it's very difficult to build a brand new airport. Hence, those two airports are the only ones that really have come along, which adds to the congestion. Airport planners and designers have to be very novel about how things work out.
Finally we're talking about the airport layout and design. This is a very generic airport layout design. This happens to be Phoenix Sky Harbor in Phoenix, Arizona. It's a layout plan that shows the existing and forecasted growth of the airport. It addressed common things, for example, as a wind rose which determines a primary direction of the runways. It gives where current and future terminals are going to be. It also addresses the FAR part 77, which basically that addressed imaginary airspace to protect approach and departure procedures. In metropolitan areas you are dealing with high rise structures and that could cause an issue. In the mid west of the United States you have cell towers and windmills that cause issues. Then you have physical and natural boundaries as well that go into that. There's a lot that goes into play.
[00:20:00] A lot of things that the FAA does regardless of the size of airport, you're dealing with something as complex as Chicago O'Hare or as I noted the RDD is actually riding California in northern California a single runway commercial airport that has minimal service, however the policies, regulations, and advisory circulars remain the same for each airport. In essence, that's kind of the bottom line and snap shot of what we're looking at for airport planning and design. I'll be happy to field any questions now as time permits or at the end. Thank you.
[00:21:00] (audio cuts out from to )
[00:26:00] To keep a happy clientele and a lot of things that [crosstalk 00:23:53] the laws and regulations to get past. It really is a challenge for airports because the TSA up tot he time that I was working with airports, it became a "unfunded mandate" that airports were required to put these huge machines that the money just wasn't available. The technology is getting better. Aichao and aida are on the cutting edge of new technologies. It's very important. There's not an easy answer to that and it's going to take some time. Politically when things get going, it's reactive, we want security to be very proactive.
[00:27:00] Thank you Shawn. We'll take one or two more questions at most. I apologize again if your question doesn't get answered or if it is skipped. We'll have an opportunity to I hope answer your questions via email if we don't get to them during the presentation. We have a question: To what extent are airport planners or designers keeping an eye on the future aircraft designs; greener, quieter? NASA and industry are investigating for deployment twenty to thirty years from now. These might include wider wingspans or longer hauls, super sonic airliners, or even suborbital space planes.
[00:28:00] That's a good question as well and that actually is an area that I was going to be addressing in my future trends earlier in my slide presentation. What planners are looking at and what they've really done all throughout the years dealing from the 1930's with the DC3 and now we're dealing with the A380 and the possible space port type of operations. They may not necessarily have any control over that type of technology, but they are learning how to be flexible in the fact of how the distances on taxi lanes between concourses. Basically if they have a set of available land to expand as possible. Many may not be aware that Denver, when Adams County built the airport, there's fifty three square miles at that airport. Not too many places have that opportunity.
Flexibility and planning, you want to be able to have the proper terminal design to where when those type of aircraft come to be able to account for it. From the space aspect, I don't persee right now in our time frame the space operations happening in airports. There are designated space ports throughout the United States and the World that would designate that. However, as aircraft continue to build, my personal opinion, they are probably not going to get any wider or bigger than the A380. It's a matter of flexibility that planners look into. They've known through historical trends what to avoid and how to maximize other things.
[00:29:00] Okay Shawn. Thanks. We're going to move on right now to our next speaker. Our next speaker is Dr. Daniel Benny. Dr. Benny is the program chair of the Bachelor of Science in aviation security at Embry-Riddle worldwide. Dr. Benny holds a PhD in criminal justice and Masters Degrees in aeronautical science and security administration. He is the author of a leading textbook on general aviation security and three other books. He has also written more than three hundred articles on security administration. His career includes service in the US Navy as a police chief. A director of public safety for several Pennsylvania colleges. He is a private pilot and a Major in the US Airforce auxillary civil air patrol. Dr. Benny will speak on airport and aviation security.
[00:30:00] It's a pleasure and it's a real honor to be here with this distinguished group of participants globally, in fact. I welcome you all aboard. I want to take a few minute to go over a few things that we are covering in this program. The presentation provides an introduction and the security measures related to airports and aviation that we cover on the MGM2900 airport security course. A lot of this information also comes from the Bachelor of Science and aviation security degree program that we have at Embry-Riddle. The topics that we're going to take a look at in the few minutes that we have. A little bit on the concept of airport security and the threats facing aviation. Discuss some aspects of airport physical security. Quick review of the secure flight program. Also some security issues related to compliance. What we need to do to insure that we're protecting the public, our aircraft, our airport facilities. Then at the end there will be some time for some questions.
[00:32:00] When aviation first began in the last century, the big focus initially was in aviation safety, as it still is and still should be. As we moved into the 1960's and the 1970's we encountered this new threat of terrorism. This new security threat against the aviation industry. That's where we are now. It's become a major focus to insure the safety of aviation and those who use our service. A couple issues related to threats. The global aviation security concerns include updating security procedures to meet new security threats. The terrorists seem to always be one step ahead of us. No matter what we put in place, they are going to look at ways to circumvent our security systems. We've seen that over the past ten years. The goal here is to be proactive and constantly seeking out new methods to provide security. We also have to make sure that any implementation of security procedures is done fairly. I am a big proponent of criminal profiling and profiling different aspects of terrorism, but we want to make sure that it is not profiling that is done discriminatory. We also want to look at establishing protocols in the assignment of proper security risk levels as well.
[00:33:00] Some of the threats to aviation security. Just a quick review of that. Terrorism is our biggest concern. Hijacking has been around since the 1950's, really before, but it came to be a serious problem starting in the 50's and 1960's. Before 9/11 the big issue with hijacking was they primarily wanted to take the plane to make a statement. Maybe to get some of their comrades out of prison, but of course with 9/11 it took on a whole new meaning. Where the aircraft were taken for use as a weapon as we saw in New York, Pennsylvania, and Washington D.C. That continues to be a serious threat. Bombs is the number one technique used by terrorists. It has always been the number one technique and tactic used and it's going to continue to be the case.
As we saw last week in Europe and Brussels with the suicide bombers, they came into the terminal. That is our biggest threat right now. Prior to the last ten or fifteen years, most terrorists were involved with bombings would set a bomb and they wanted to survive. Often times it was easier to detect those devices, but with suicide bombers where they just come in and detonate themselves, that's pretty difficult to defend against. Bombings will continue to be a concern. Suicide bombings, attempting to board a plane with a bomb, to detonate or try to get to explosives into an aircraft. Small arms attacks, we've seen that over the last years at various airports. Not so much in the United States, but where terrorists come in with small semi automatic or automatic weapons and just start shooting up a terminal or a ticket counter.
[00:35:00] Some of the new concerns are missiles/ There have been commercial aircraft taken down in recent history with shoulder launch missiles. These aircraft are very vulnerable coming in for a landing or taking off. They certainly can be taken out. The new issue is drone attacks. There's a lot of information in the news and we see reports every week where people accidentally are flying drones in the controlled air space and near airports. The concern with use of terrorist activity, drones could have a pay load of explosives that could be flown into an aircraft coming in for a landing, for example. Or also be directed into the engine and that would be devastating. The other concern is cyber terrorism, hacking into computers. An entire airport could be brought down. Air traffic control system could be taken out. There's even concerns that somebody could actually take control of an aircraft and direct it to be used as a terrorist weapon.
[00:36:00] We also have traditional criminal activity at airports. Theft, fraud, sometimes it's the security that's taking part in this unfortunately. There is the theft and fraud issue at the airports. Smuggling weapons, drugs, contraband. Additional crime assaults and often times work place violence issues can be brought into an airport setting. Aviation security considerations, one of the biggest threats is internal. I think this is an area that airports really need to focus on. Not only from work place violence and those issues, but really the terrorism threat. There's a lot of good intelligence out, especially lately, that these terror groups are trying to get individuals employed at airports or contractors who service airports; catering, whatever it might be. If they can get somebody working there on the ground where they could smuggle explosives to insert explosives into an aircraft or smuggle weapons in, that could be very devastating. There needs to be a really strong focus on who we hire and the background checks.
[00:37:00] Reference physical security, this is covered pretty in depth in the course that we offer. Physical security is first line of defense in most cases. Along with the airport screening process and setting up the secure identification display areas or the SIDA. There's other things we want to look at. Obviously access control and credentialing. To get into the SIDA area you need to have the credentials and identification and you need access control. Along with that are intrusion detection systems or alarm systems where we control doors, coverage of glass areas, and different secure areas within the airport. Obviously screening and passenger baggage control, security screening for that. Fences and barriers to keep individuals from getting out to the aircraft, getting out to the runway. There are some secure areas within the airport property that need to be secured as well with fences and barriers.
Security cameras, fantastic tool. Do they deter crime or terrorism? Most likely not. In some cases, but primary they're there for two reasons: one if they're being monitored live, which is what I would recommend, security forces can respond immediately when they see a threat. Somebody coming over a fence, but additional by having those cameras as we saw in Brussels last week, they can be used to identify individuals and really look at what took place if an attack occurs or there's breach of security. It can be used to determine what the problem was and also a method of prosecuting individuals.
[00:38:00] Security lighting, of course, in the perimeters, parking areas, walk ways, and within the terminal. The United States airport security coordinator plays a major role within the airport community. This is the person that works for the airport and they coordinate all the physical security and all the other aspects of airport security with local law enforcement, with TSA, and airline security. We also have the law enforcement response, the police officers at the various airports. Globally you may have a mix of this, depending on what country you're in. It's most likely pretty similar. Airlines have their own security or security coordinators.
[00:39:00] Interesting program that was set up, the transportation security administration here in the United States and it does impact globally, is the secure flight program. It has been implemented to update and maintain a really good watch list to match people that are coming onto aircraft. In section 4012 you can take a look at on your own. The idea of secure flight, what it does is applies to passengers traveling on covered airlines in and out of the United States or it's territories. Individual flying over the continental United States. Individuals between two international points covered by US airlines only. It also applies to non traveling individuals seeking authorization to enter the sterile area of an airport.
[00:40:00] The idea of the concepts of secure flight enhances the security of commercial air travel. Raise the baseline standard in terms of technology and automation used in the watch list to match individuals. It decreases the chance for compromised watch list data by limiting it's distribution. It also expedited law enforcement's ability to see who's on that list and make proper notification. The other part, it provides fair, equitable, and consistent watch list matching so we don't have that many errors. The bottom line, it supports travel industry and their operational needs.
[00:41:00] As far as airport security compliance, airport security plan is really vital to put together and is a requirement to have this plan together to develop a proactive security program. It has to be in conjunction with the airport master plan, of course. It must be approved by transportation security administration in the states and it establishes also an airport security coordinator position. There's really training and certification that you need that have that AAAE, American Associates of Airport Executives puts on a training program that would certify people for that position. It could be a full time position or collateral position. The airport security compliance also means that we need to establish physical security measures. We're talking about security in depth, layers of security that hopefully one of those layers would prevent or stop something from occurring. The idea of physical security is deter, delay, and detect entry into those areas. The, of course, a secure flight program which is being used as well.
That really concludes that. I'm here for questions if you have any questions. We certainly encourage you to take part in the full program. That, by the way, is my 1961 Cessna 150. Being a pilot, we kind of like to show those things off.
Thank you Dr. Benny. We'll now look at the questions that have been coming in during your presentation. How do we secure airport perimeters better? More successfully airports have a border of water when systems such as SIDA has failed.
Daniel Benny: Obviously for perimeter, we're looking at barriers initially. Fencing, chain link fencing, there's other types of fencing. For airports that border on water there are sonar devices that can be placed actually in the water that can detect anyone approaching either under water or also water craft coming close to that. Barriers can be put on the shore line, of course, to prevent anyone accessing from the water areas. Sonar can be used very effectively in that situation.
Thank you. I'm just reading some of the other questions. I have one in regards to the flight attendant, I'm not familiar with this myself, but in regards to the flight attendant at LAX who attempted to smuggle seventy pounds of cocaine, fled flight crew security area where the drugs were discovered. Unknown if she identified herself prior to the discovery. Next day she turned herself in at JFK. Believed to have flown on her own airline possibly on duty. She was a wanted person. Where do you believe the security failure was that allowed her to board a flight the next day?
Daniel Benny: Obviously the information was not put out as far as what transpired. The person was unidentified and should have been put on a watch list. Specifically for that airline to stop the individual. Certainly communication failure.
[00:44:00] Next question. Cyber attacks have become more popular. What is being done to insure our airspace systems are not susceptible to these attacks? Who is responsible for that kind of funding?
Daniel Benny: For the federal government, it's the congress that's responsible for the funding. We have TSA working on this homeland security. The FAA is also working on these issues related to hacking into the air traffic control system. I'm a former naval intell and former federal employee and as we saw last year, any of you who may be, all of our information was hacked to OPM. It's a very serious concern, but the federal government has to take the lead in funding that and dealing with those issues.
Rob Kelly: Next question. Should one hundred percent employee screening be mandated?
Daniel Benny: I would be in favor of screening all employees. Absolutely.
I apologize again. I'm flipping through questions to try and vary the subject a little bit. Again, if we don't get to yours we will try and follow up. Next question. Where can we classify laser attack against pilots and what should be the best practice to proactively prevent those type of incidents?
[00:46:00] The laser attack, it could be just criminal activity. It is a crime to do so. It could be terrorism. If something is going to be classified as terrorism, it's usually something that's done for some sort of political, religious, or some kind of plan or goal that they have. That's the difference between terrorism and just a criminal act. Just being proactive and being alert to the threats. I know there's some training out there for pilots to be alert to this. To be able to see what's happening and advert your eyes and so forth before that. There's some work being done, from what I've read, to take care of some screening on the aircraft to prevent that from affecting their eyes.
Rob Kelly: Next question. Can security for airports start on an established perimeter including parking lots, for example?
Daniel Benny: When you look at security for an airport you should start at the property line. When I would do a security evaluation or anyone that does a security evaluation, you start on the perimeter. That perimeter may not even be an area that is fenced. It may be a larger area, but you want to start security at the perimeter, especially where you have parking garages, and you work your way in to the center of the airport. Obviously the security at a parking area is not going to be as in depth as in the secure area, but it's certainly something you want to look at with cameras, lighting, signage, security patrols, and things of that nature.
[00:47:00] Next question. Terrorists keep targeting airports. Is there anything else that can be done?
[00:48:00] We can't prevent what they target. For some reason they have this fixation with airports that many other places have been hit as well, as we see in Paris. They're looking at soft target primarily. The goal is to harden the targets. This was brought up in a question in the last segment. As we harden the access to get onto the runway, as we harden access to get close to the aircraft, the soft target is coming in through the terminal. That's a tough one to deal with. We have to have security, but it can't be to the point where planes don't take off. The terminal area is a soft target. The profiling of actions and activity of individuals is something that can be done. I know there's some research being done. Technology is there that you could have some general sensors set up in some of the doorways that would detect a certain large amount of explosives. For example, if you go into some military bases and certain areas around the country, there are detectors that are at entrances that people don't even know. There is some technology that can be used for that.
Rob Kelly: Thank you Dr. Benny. I think it will be our last question. Besides funding of cyber security, which organization should be involved in dealing with the issue; national or international?
[00:49:00] Within United States, homeland security and TSA falls under that. They certainly should be involved. The FAA is going to play a role in that. You want to have professional organizations like AAAE and various international aviation organizations. They all need to have some input and say. There's experts that we can pull from various within the aviation community to help come up with the solution for this.
[00:50:00] Thank you Dr. Benny and thank you everyone for the great questions. We are going to conclude this portion of the webinar and just briefly go over some of the training opportunities offered by the office of professional education. As was covered during part I of the webinar, the information presented today as well as the information that was presented last week are covered in details as part of a new professional certificate being offered by Embry-Riddle worldwide and airport planning design and development. Certificate in airport planning, design, and development consists of four online courses in planning, security, safety and certification, and sustainability in environmental management. We had briefed last week that there would be five required courses, however the fifth course will be optional and offered at an undetermined future date and will cover terminal planning. For this or any of our certificated please email email@example.com with questions or visit our website at proed.erau.edu.
[00:51:00] The certificate in aviation risk management consists of five courses in law, finance, safety, management systems, insurance, and hazard ID. Students have the option of taking one of two SMS or insurance courses depending on their interests. Our new certificate in airport risk management and safety consists of three required courses and one recommended course. The required courses cover airport risk management and insurance, construction safety and airport safety and certification. We also recommend taking Dr. Benny's airport security course as part of that professional certificate. The final series of courses I wanted to mention today belong to our program and small unmanned aircraft system. This does not lead to a certification or a license and does not fit into any FAA or other requirements. The course is on history and application, design and operations, and regulates are informational only.
[00:52:00] We'll start the first course this August and then follow every month with the remaining two courses. These are some of our other programs that I won't read to you. We have courses covering a variety of aviation fields, project management, aviation management, business law and finance, and again firstname.lastname@example.org is our email or our website is proed.erua.edu to register for courses or for more information that we have available on the web. There is the phone number for myself and my two colleagues here in the offices of professional education. If you'd like to contact us via phone for any questions. Here are the three webinars remaining on the schedule for the spring. Be sure to register for each if you have not already done so at webinars.erau.edu. Thank you for joining us today.
According to the International Air Transport Association (IATA), some 3.6 billion passengers are expected to fly on commercial aircraft in 2016. That’s 800 million more than just five years ago. And these numbers continue to grow by more than five percent per year. We can build the airplanes but what about airports? The issue of expanding current airports and developing new ones is critical to the growth of the aviation industry.
We invite you to join us for “21st Century Airport Planning, Design, and Development,” a two-part webinar series presented by leading aviation experts from Embry-Riddle.
Attendees can sign up for one or both sessions. On March 24 at 2 p.m., Drs. Patti Clark and Katherine Moran will cover “Airport Sustainability, Safety, and Certification” in Part I. A week later, Assistant Professor Shawn Arena and Dr. Daniel Benny will cover “Airport Planning and Security” during Part II on March 31 at 2 p.m.
Both sessions are open to the public and offered at no cost. Each session is one hour. Please register for each part individually.
About the Presenters
Dr. Patti Clark is an assistant professor at Embry-Riddle Worldwide. She has aviation experience ranging from an Air Force aircraft jet engine mechanic to airport manager. She is a certified Project Management Professional (PMP), Certified Member (CM) of the American Association of Airport Executives, and a licensed Airframe and Powerplant (A&P) Technician by the Federal Aviation Administration. She holds undergraduate and graduate degrees from Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University and a Ph.D. from Northcentral University.
Dr. Katherine Moran is an associate professor and program chair for the Master of Science in Occupational Safety Management at Embry-Riddle Worldwide. She received her Doctor of Education in Quantitative Research from the University of Southern California and is working toward a Ph.D. in Biomechanical Engineering from the University of Portsmouth, UK. She was a co-developer of the Virtual Aircraft Crash Lab, which is now used in several Embry-Riddle Worldwide courses. She served in the U.S. Air Force and Air National Guard for 20 years in the fields of F-15 Avionics, Aviation Safety, Occupational Safety and Health, and Aircraft Accident Investigation.
Assistant Professor Shawn Arena, A.A.E., is a 27-year airport industry professional. He has held management positions at four commercial service airports and four general aviation airports. He is an Accredited Airport Executive (A.A.E.) and active member on local, regional, and national professional airport boards. He holds degrees from Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University and the University of Southern California.
Dr. Daniel Benny is the program chair of the Bachelor of Science in Aviation Security at Embry-Riddle Worldwide. Dr. Benny holds a Ph.D. in criminal justice and master’s degrees in aeronautical science and security administration. He is the author of a leading textbook on general aviation security and three other books. He has also written more than 300 articles on security administration. His career includes service as a U.S. Naval Intelligence Officer, U.S. Navy Police Chief, and director of public safety for several Pennsylvania colleges. He is a private pilot and a major in the USAF Auxiliary Civil Air Patrol.